A panel packaging machine for EPS PANEL

6.

The arcuately curved wall surface amounts 43 are like the curved wall surface section I1 and are modified to become flexed just for applying parallel windows solar panels orpanes 44 with their sides disposed within the grooves 31 as demonstrated in Shape 5. If the windows solar panels or panes 44 are put, the arcuately curved walls 43 are flexed by means of a tool as displayed in Physique 4 to make the curved wall surface 43 in to the curved segment 4| of your launching or passageway 40 or by inflating the opportunities or passageways 40 as proven in Figure 4a to cause the wall space 43 being flexed and deformed to an expanded position whereupon the mouth 38 will be disposed from the pathway from the panes or solar panels 44 to allow the straightforward placement thereof.

In both kinds of the technology of panel packing, the arcuately curved walls l1 and 43 think a curved normal cause and position the securing mouth area I! and 38 to contactually take part the glass seal and panels the identical against the entrance of humidity and also Weather conditions. It can thus be observed that this arcuately curved wall space 43 and I1, during times of their unflexed or typical placement, push a force in the closing mouth area. I I2, 38 and I with out demanding the use of interlocking pieces or other devices for attaining this goal.

It is usually to be recognized that this sorts of the invention of panel packing herewith shownand detailed need to be undertaken as desired embodiments of the same and that different alterations might be created in the shape, arrangement and size of pieces without departing in the soul in the technology of panel packing or maybe the range of the subjoined claims.

A Few Things I state is:

1. A panel wrapping machine, comprising an elongated system section of elastic deformable material using a groove for getting the fringe of a panel associate, said entire body portion being entirely designed in cross-section and with a resilient groove wall surface to normally take part and frictionally gripthe fringe of explained panel fellow member, and explained physique section being provided with a longitudinally stretching out atmosphere-limited starting forming an elongated closed oxygen chamber disposed adjacent explained groove wall to allow flexing of said groove wall to result in deformation of mentioned groove and facilitate placement of explained panel member by which saidpanel will be irictionally locked in explained groove once the body portion is reconditioned to itsnormal long term cross sectional condition in response for the restorative push applied thereon with the oxygen pressure in mentioned air flow holding chamber.

2. A panel packing machine for weatherproofing the joints involving the nearby edges of a set of panel people, comprising an elongated system segment formed of rubber using a completely formed cross segment, said physique section simply being created with oppositely disposed longitudinally stretching grooves for receiving the nearby corners of panel people, and mentioned body portion getting provided with a longitudinally stretching starting possessing a reduced part extending involving stated lines along with an increased portion developing an arcuately curved wall portion adjusted to be deformed into stated opening to distort mentioned lines and aid the insertion and removal of explained panel participants.

3. A packing-and closing strip for weatherproofing the joints between the surrounding corners of a couple of panel people, comprising an elongated entire body portion shaped of silicone using a forever molded cross segment, stated physique segment getting established with oppositely disposed longitudinally extending grooves for getting the adjacent sides of panel associates; and mentioned physique segment getting provided with a longitudinally stretching opening developing a lowered segment stretching out among mentioned lines along with an increased segment forming an arcuately curved wall segment modified to be deformed into mentioned opening to distort’said lines and facilitate the insertion and removal of explained panel associates, mentioned lines simply being established with inwardly directed wall space to generally engage and frictionally traction the edges of mentioned panel people.

A panel packaging machine for EPS PANEL the joints

As a result, right after the glass panel has become put within the groove Identification of your closing strip 5, the closing lip I2 is caused to return to its regular securing position proven in Figures 2 and 1, either by withdrawing the device I8 of Physique 4 or admitting atmosphere to get rid of the vacuum within the passageway I3 of Physique 4, or by discharging compressed air through the passageway I3 of Body 4a. The window installing as a whole then seems as proven in Body 8.

While in installation, the wide open finishes of your passageway I3 in the securing strip 5 can be closed and created airtight by cementing or vulcanizing the alternative comes to an end in the securing strip 5 where by they abut each other, as demonstrated at 5a in Shape 8. It has also been identified possible to seal the passageway I3 sufliciently for that purpose of the current invention of panel packing just by cutting the securing strip into a size in excess of its essential size, by way of example about one quarter inches beyond required. When this overly long closing strip 5 needs in to the panel starting, the finishes 5a are compressed collectively by the strength in the closing strip 5, securing the joints between them.

Such as the invention of panel packing demonstrated in Numbers 5 to ‘7 comprehensive, the closing strip 30 is created by extruding rubber or any other appropriate material for the wanted shape. so as’to give a system portion 3| possessing a base wall 32 given a central slot 33 for receiving a rib 34 on a structure associate or maybe the like as at 35. The framework associate 35 may possibly constitute the channel portion of a home window opening up and it is furnished with downwardly extending flanges 36 as displayed in Body 5.

Your body section 3| of your sealing strip is provided with some window pane acquiring lines 31 arranged in parallel spread out connection and said lines have inwardly directed surfaces delivering sealing lip amounts 38 similar to the securing lip servings II and I2 of the panel wrapping machines proven in Numbers 1 to 4a inclusive. One side surfaces 39 of the closing strip are arcuately curved in cross portion and the entire body section 3| from the closing strip is provided with longitudinally stretching opportunities or passageways 40 experiencing compared interior curved wall surfaces 4 and 42. The interior curved wall surfaces 42 are molded to coincide together with the side wall space 39 in an attempt to kind an arcuately curved wall structure part 43 as demonstrated clearly in Physique

assisting transportation and storage of your modular panel-packing box

A modular panel-packing pack gets a plurality of sections, and contains a base, two partitioning units, a loop-formed around walls, and a leading include. Each one of the partitioning devices contains a socket and one or more partitioning fellow member. Any two nearby ones of your bottom, the plug, the partitioning member, the nearby walls, along with the leading cover are connected removably. Each one of the foundation, the plug, the partitioning participant, and the top protect is folded, and is unfoldable to create a level dish for facilitating storage and transportation of the modular panel-packing pack.

A modular panel-packing container tailored for getting a plurality of up-right panels, stated modular panel-packing container comprising:

basics including a base wall surface plus a foundation encircling wall surface stretching upwardly from your periphery of stated underside wall;

two very first partitioning units disposed removably on stated base walls and spaced in addition to one another, all of explained very first partitioning products including a very first outlet established by using a plurality of initially place slot machine games, and a minimum of one initially partitioning associate developing a plurality of first partitioning dishes each and every placed right into a corresponding certainly one of said initially put slot machine games in stated initially plug, stated initially partitioning plates understanding a plurality of initially spacer slot machine games, explained very first spacer slot machines in a of mentioned initially partitioning devices simply being in-line correspondingly with stated initially spacer slot machine games from the other of said very first partitioning units, in order that the panels are disposed in between explained very first partitioning people in stated very first partitioning devices, and extend correspondingly into explained first spacer slots in either of mentioned very first partitioning units;

a loop-shaped surrounding walls disposed removably on stated basic and surrounding explained initial partitioning models; and

a top-notch include hooked up removably to explained loop-molded encircling wall surface and adjusted for addressing higher ends in the sections;

whereby, all of explained bottom, said very first sockets and initially partitioning individuals explained very first partitioning units, and explained leading protect is folded, which is unfoldable produce a smooth plate when pulled from the rest of the percentage of explained modular panel-packing package.

2. The modular panel-packing pack as professed in declare 1, wherein all of explained very first sockets includes an elongated underside sheet abutting from stated base wall structure and increasing alongside a route perpendicular to stated initially put slot machine games, an elongated straight sheet stretching upwardly from explained bottom page and established with stated initial insert slots, two first side linens increasing correspondingly from two opposing comes to an end of mentioned bottom sheet away from the other, and 2 next area sheets stretching out correspondingly from stated initial side sheets far from the other, a junction between explained straight sheet and each and every of mentioned first aspect sheets simply being shaped having an put in slit, each of said 2nd part linens having an put projection placed into stated put slit shaped between mentioned straight page and an adjoining certainly one of mentioned first area bedding, to ensure that a related one of stated 2nd part bedding is flattened on the adjacent one among said first part bedding.

3. The modular panel-packing package as stated in assert 2, wherein all of mentioned initially partitioning members of mentioned first partitioning models incorporates a plurality of sets of first partitioning bedding, plus a plurality of initial spacer bedding each and every hooked up among two adjoining sets of explained first partitioning linens, each set of stated very first partitioning bedding simply being connected and flattened on the other to make one among stated very first partitioning dishes.

the factory making the panel packaging machine with film panel show solar panels

[16] As defined earlier mentioned, the current invention offers an panel product packaging range for horizontally packing a slender film exhibit panel, which is made in order that a stacking structure 100 and a sitting work surface of any seats phase 200, getting in touch with a received lean film show panel, are shaped to correspond to the slender film display panel to be able to safely and securely move and transport the panel, and which is created so the stacking structure 100 as well as the seating step 200 have various densities to face up to additional shocks. Thus, according to this invention, it is easier to handle and material costs are lower, thereby manufacturing costs are low and the panel packaging line is very economical, in comparison with a conventional packing box.

[17] Further, this creation fails to makes use of an additional protecting model to protect a push circuit that is supplied with a back surface of the thin film display panel M, as opposed to the before craft. Therefore, this innovation gets rid of side effect and inconvenience due to the using the extra guarding system, whilst properly acknowledging a panel packing functionality and completely absorbing shocks produced during very long-distance travel. A recess 210 is supplied to prevent interference with all the drive circuit Ml that is provided in the again surface of the lean film display panel, as a result stopping the drive circuit Ml from becoming damaged. [18] Moreover, it really is possible to variably change the volume of layered packing panel packaging linees. The present creation can do increasing the volume of slim film exhibit panels which may be stuffed in a packing panel wrapping line having a predetermined size, thus reducing the volume of shipments and transportation expenses.

Brief Description of your Drawings [19] FIG. 1 is a sectional view to show using a conventional packing container for panel packaging line a slender film display panel; [20] FIG. 2 is a perspective view to show an panel packaging line for horizontally packing a thin film display panel, according to an embodiment of the present invention; [21] FIG. 3 is really a perspective view to exhibit their state where the panel packing panel packaging linees on this technology are layered; [22] FIG. 4 is really a sectional see to indicate the state the location where the panel packing panel product packaging linees on this invention are layered; [23] FIG. 5 is a perspective view to show reinforcing pins which are provided on the panel packaging line for horizontally packing the thin film display panel, according to this invention; [24] FIG. 6 is a perspective view to exhibit the state the location where the panel packing panel product packaging linees obtaining the strengthening pins with this technology are layered; [25] FIG. 7 is really a sectional look at to demonstrate their state the location where the panel packing panel product packaging linees finding the strengthening pins on this creation are layered; [26] FIG. According to this invention; [27] FIG, 8 is a perspective view to show reinforcing bars which are provided on the panel packaging line for horizontally packing the thin film display panel. 9 can be a sectional view to indicate their state in which the panel packing panel product packaging linees getting the strengthening bars of this invention are layered; [28] FIG. According to another embodiment of the present invention; [29] FIG, 10 is a perspective view to show panel packing panel packaging linees which are laterally coupled to each other. 11 is a perspective view to show panel packing panel packaging linees which are laterally coupled to each other and are provided with reinforcing pins, according to another embodiment of the present invention; and [30] FIG. 12 is a partially cutaway perspective view to show panel packing panel packaging linees which are laterally coupled to each other and are provided with reinforcing bars, according to another embodiment of the present invention.

the production line creating the panel packaging machine with film panel display individual panels

This innovation permits the slender film exhibit panel being safely safeguarded using only the packing panel packaging collection alone without having to use further guarding system, unlike the previous art, as a result fixing the difficulties which may take place as a result of using the more safeguarding model, and decreasing an economical problem with a manufacturing organization which produces the slender film display panel as the half-done merchandise, for that reason maximizing value competitiveness.

[14] Yet another thing of this invention is to produce an panel packing range for packing a thin film display panel, that has a method for horizontally loading thin film panel packaging line screen individual panels and stacking the packed sections in multiple tiers, hence altering the size of your piled solar panels to match the height of any storage area of travelling signifies experiencing numerous heights, and that has a means for protecting the lean film exhibit panels with out a guarding model or a partition wall surface, contrary to standard packing bins, thus growing the amount of thin film show panels which can be bundled in one packing panel packaging line as a result minimizing the quantity of shipments and minimizing transport costs.

Technological Remedy

[15] In order to accomplish the object, the present invention provides an panel packaging line for packing a thin film display panel, including a stacking frame which is open at a center thereof, and a seating step provided inside the stacking frame such that the thin film display panel is horizontally seated thereon. Useful Consequences

} the guidelines of your invention. wrapping machine

In light of these drawbacks, you will discover a necessity for a way and equipment for wrapping a lot with product packaging material that works as efficiently as those earlier produced but that may be made with a less expensive.

SUMMARY OF THE Innovation

Accordingly, the present technology is forwarded to an approach and device for wrapping a lot with packing material which provides positive aspects and obviates numerous issues in previously methods and apparatus for wrapping a load.

To accomplish these and also other benefits and in line with the objective of the innovation, as embodied and extensively defined, the innovation contains an device for wrapping a lot of product packaging material such as a dispenser for dispensing packaging material, means for providing family member rotation between your dispenser along with the load to wrap product packaging material round the stress, as well as a retainer for holding a prominent end of the wrapping material although at first wrapping the load.

The retainer automatically releases the packaging material in response to unpowered actuation, according to one aspect of the invention. The retainer automaticaliy releases the packaging material in response to force applied by packaging material wrapped around the load, according to another aspect of the invention.

The retainer includes a gripper for holding the packaging material between opposed surfaces and moves from a radially outward position to a radially inward position to release the packaging material, according to another aspect of the invention.

Additional advantages and features in the technology is going to be established inside the outline which adheres to, and in aspect is going to be noticeable from your description, or may be acquired by exercise of the technology. The objects as well as other advantages of the invention will probably be attained and realized by the method and apparatus specifically pointed out inside the published claims and description plus the appended drawings.

It is to be understood that the two foregoing general description and also the following in depth information are explanatory and exemplary and usually are meant to give further clarification in the innovation as reported. The related drawings are incorporated to provide a additional idea of the innovation and they are incorporated in and constitute a part of the specs, demonstrate an embodiment of the technology, and together with the information help to make clear the principles from the creation.

dispensing the packing material from a packaging wrapping machine

The invention relates to wrapping a lot with wrapping material. Tons have already been stretch twisted with stretch wrap wrapping material by dispensing the packing material, securing a leading stop from the wrapping material for the weight or possibly a ~ turntable clamp, and delivering family member rotation between your stress along with a packaging material dispenser. The comparable rotation can be offered a number of different ways.

Either the load can be rotated on a turntable, or the dispenser can be rotated around the stationary load. Stretch wrapping typically employs an online of stretch film as the wrapping material.

Semi-intelligent stretch wrapping machines needs the operator to install a prominent stop from the packaging material towards the weight. This really is generally attained by forming a rope within the top conclusion of the film after which placing this conclusion between the layers in the stress or tying the conclusion of the packaging material to the edge of the supporting hardwood pallet or any suitable outcropping on the weight. This bond needs to be fairly strong since it delivers the potential to deal with pulling the film through the film dispenser through the initiation of the relative rotation involving the load and the film dispenser. The connection or tying in the film makes film removal far more diffficult once the weight has become mailed to its spot.

Automated stretch wrapping devices use film clamps that typically grasp the film web between two opposed surfaces and use electric or pneumatic actuators to close and open the clamps. Whenever a turntable can be used to swivel the stress, it can be necessary to create a spinning log for power or pneumatic contacts.

This sort of relationships boost space and cost needs.

wedge and Hooks-type clamps are already tried previously but keep the top finish of film tail unsecured by an overwrap of film. These tails are easily snagged by fork trucks or another rack storage techniques and may improve the potential risk of problems for the film overwrap and its capability to include the fill.

dispensing the packaging material from your wrapping wrapping machine

A prominent end of packing materials put into a retainer to carry the top conclusion from the product packaging material from the retainer. Packing material is dispensed coming from a wrapping material dispenser, and comparable rotation is supplied involving the dispenser as well as a load to wrap product packaging material round the weight. The packaging material is automatically released from the retainer in response to force applied by packaging material wrapped around the load. Alternatively, other unpowered actuation.

An device for wrapping a load with product packaging material comprising:

a dispenser for dispensing and stretching wrapping material;

method for providing family member rotation between your dispenser and the fill to wrap stretched packaging material throughout the stress; and a retainer for positioning a leading stop in the packing material whilst in the beginning wrapping the burden, and also for quickly releasing the packing material in reaction to unpowered actuation.

2. An equipment for wrapping a lot with packaging material comprising:

a dispenser for stretching and dispensing packing material;

means for delivering comparable rotation between the dispenser as well as the stress to wrap stretched packing material across the load; as well as a retainer for keeping a leading conclusion of the wrapping material when at first wrapping the stress, and for quickly delivering the packaging material in reaction to force utilized by product packaging material covered across the stress.

3. The apparatus of declare 2, in which the retainer incorporates a gripper for positioning the packing material among opposed surfaces.

4. The equipment of declare 3, whereby the method for providing family member rotation describes a family member middle of rotation along with the retainer techniques from a radially outward placement into a radially inward situation with respect to the family member middle of rotation to release the wrapping material.

5. The device of assert 3, whereby the retainer includes a pivot with a pivot axis, the method for providing relative rotation identifies a family member center of rotation, as well as the retainer techniques from your radially outward place to your radially inward situation concerning the pivot axis with regards to the family member heart of rotation to release the wrapping material.

6. The apparatus of state 5, wherein the pivot axis in the retainer goes by radially inward with regards to the family member centre of rotation of any level the location where the load is initially contacted through the wrapping material.

7. The device of state 5 wherein the pivot axis in the retainer facets, from the radial increasing in the relative heart of rotation, inward towards the burden in which the weight is initially contacted by the product packaging material.

8. The equipment of declare 7 in which the pivot axis of the retainer aspects from your radial roughly 70-80 degrees.

rotatable help for offering general rotation wrapping machine

Extra advantages and objects of your technology will probably be ;i ‘! set forth to some extent within the description which practices, and also in part ”will be clear in the description, or might be figured out by process in the creation. The advantages and objects from the creation will probably be attained and realized by using the combinations and elements specifically pointed out inside the appended boasts.

To have the objects and in accordance with the goal of ;the technology, as embodied and generally explained herein, the ‘! invention includes an device for stretch wrapping a load with ,;

jIa internet of packaging material. The equipment contains a set (! ;assistance, an online dispenser, plus a rotatable assistance for offering irelative rotation in between the internet dispenser and the load to wrap ~the web of packaging material round the fill. Furthermore, it involves cooperating displaying people which take part each other for supporting ;the rotatable support and permitting the rotation in the rotatable assist. One of many having members is mounted on a rotatable assistance and the other bearing fellow member is installed on the fixed assistance. One of many showing associates features a tabs on resilient material and also the other bearing associate includes a curler surface ~~which rolls along the a record of resilient material.

It is going to be comprehended that both foregoing common information and also the following comprehensive explanation are explanatory and exemplary only and they are not restrictive of the innovation, as professed.

An apparatus for stretch wrapping a load by using a online of wrapping material comprising:

a fixed support;

an online dispenser;

a rotatable support for offering relative rotation between the internet dispenser and also the load to wrap the web of product packaging material around the weight;

cooperating bearing participants which engage the other for helping the rotatable assistance and permitting the rotation in the rotatable assistance, one of the having participants becoming installed on the rotatable support and the other displaying participant simply being attached to the resolved help, one of several having participants including a a record of resilient material and also the other having participant together with a curler work surface which moves along the a record of tough material.

2. The device of assert 1, wherein the having member with all the an eye on strong material is attached to the rotatable support and the bearing associate with all the curler area is attached to the repaired support.

3. The equipment of assert 1, in which track of tough material includes a engagement ring form by having an axial surface area for engaging the curler area.

4. The equipment of assert 1, whereby the a record of sturdy material carries a engagement ring condition having a radial surface for fascinating the roller surface area.

5. The equipment of claim 1 whereby the having fellow member together with the strong material contains wall surfaces for made up of the sturdy material.

6. The apparatus of declare 1, wherein the rotatable support supports the burden.

7. The equipment of declare 1, wherein the rotatable support facilitates the net dispenser.

8. The equipment of assert l, in which the strong material includes a tough artificial polymeric material.

9. The apparatus of declare 1, where the sturdy material involves an elastomer.

10. The device of declare 1, whereby the strong material consists of urethane rubberized.

11. The equipment of assert 1, where the sturdy material carries a durometer in the range of to 65 Shoreline D.

12. The equipment of claim 1, whereby the sturdy material has a durometer in all the different 60 Shoreline A to 95 Shore A.

13. The apparatus of declare 1, where the strong material features a durometer in all the different 90 to 95 Shore A.

14. The equipment of assert l, whereby the sturdy material recovers with out long lasting deflection after helping a stationary stress of 15,000 pounds.

15. The apparatus of declare 1, where the tough material recovers without having permanent deflection right after helping a dynamic weight of 5,000 pounds.

16. The equipment of assert 1, whereby the roller surface area contains a plurality of roller models spread out round the track of resilient material.

17. The apparatus of claim 1, in which the curler work surface contains a plurality of curler products spread out around the track of resilient material, and one of the curler products engages a area of the a record of resilient material at a area different from the portion of the monitor involved by another among the curler products.

18. The apparatus of state l, whereby the roller area includes cylindrical rollers.

19. The equipment of claim 1, whereby the roller surface is metal.

20. The equipment of claim 1, whereby the tough material is plastic material and also the curler area is metal.

The opening up if the stretch packaging machinery

The following embodiments from the sketches and also the specialized solution of the innovation more.

As to the certain composition displayed in Physique 1, the present creation orbit individual, dual firecrackers packaging machine 3 is: I kept the inside of the lower rack to setup the motor and reducer 2 through the top area of the sequence push chassis driving a vehicle wheel and the back end finish from the major conveyor sprocket blend 3, manual rollers and rear-conclusion sprocket blend 4; principal conveyor sprocket drive wheel and also the back end stop in the major conveyor mixture of about three capstan push throughout the primary principal conveyor belt 8 together with the powered rims and also the back end stop of your chain, pulley mixture of 15 and 24 ahead of the rims roll side, roll edge right after circular 25; pushed rims and also the back end end of the main conveyor sprockets, pulleys mixture pulley 15 by way of a buckle 14 motivated roll pulp pulley tires as well as the back conclusion of a variety of 12; powered tires and also the back conclusion from the major conveyor sprockets, pulleys powered by a combination of 15 artillery tank conveyor sprocket and also the back stop in the push tire 19 throughout the sequence sprocket, pulley mixture 18; artillery container conveyor traveling tire and the rear stop of the sequence, pulley mixture of 18 artillery rounds have been lively trough conveyor buckle conveyor buckle powered by twice-pistol rounds 17 and even within the gun on the belt conveyor and tank cannon weapon reservoir driven from the conveyor belt tensioner 20 driving a vehicle wheel 26 to swivel.

[0017] The present technology orbit single, dual firecrackers packaging machine functioning basic principle and approach are: the breadth of your greater operate wrapping wrapping document linked to the reduce shaft 21, out of a page of papers and convey these people to the principle conveyor buckle 8 on; smaller the breadth from the wrapping paper wrapping pieces of paper fitted to shaft 11, out of a page of pieces of paper around the carry curler 10 about the wrapper blend of the paddle wheel along with the back conclusion curler 12 which curler pulley tire slurry nourished for the main conveyor 8 ; knitting firecrackers were actually place on an effective tank guns even 22, even beneath the pistol slot machines 23, 23 even beneath even weapon slot machine games on the inside of the conveyor towards the primary conveyor 8 beneath wrapping the top of the the weapon by firearm by even reduce Even pistol slot machines within the conveyor buckle 22, flap 16 rail carry even under the gun next to the main conveyor 8 wrapping on the top of an individual flap 16 may also shut down the side rails when packing; major pull conveyor 8 under the wrapping paper and firecrackers moving along the kept top area from the wheel 24 rolls, roll advantage after 25 rounds on both edges in the breadth of the greater roll wrapping document below strain at the front line of firecrackers, is transported on the major conveyor belt the wrapping pieces of paper covered with syrup 8 on both edges from the roll of firecrackers less than pressure inside the packaging, when prop weapon by pushing the top of the the roller 7 9 firearm curler compaction on wrapping document, packaging firecrackers in the past by prop gun board information rollers and also the back again-conclusion and back end sprocket permutations 5 6 4 prop weapon one of the board in between manual rollers to steer the formation of a circular bale design.

State rail flap [0018] control Shape 2, the present innovation orbit solitary, twice firecrackers packaging machine 16 is closed at this time may be dual firecrackers packaging.

[0019] Shape 3 handles, solitary orbit from the provide innovation, the state rail firecrackers packaging machine increase flap 16 is opened, this time may be individual firecracker packaging.